Which Presidents were Freemasons?

Presidents of the United States (79.34.1)

Presidents of the United States, ca. 1861

A Feusier, lithographer; F. Bouclet, publisher

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Special Acquisitions Fund, 79.34.1

Photograph by David Bohl

Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) as a Master Mason (2000.059.10)

Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) as a Master Mason, 1912

J.L. Phelps

Spokane, Washington

Scottish Rite Masonic Museum & Library Purchase, 2000.059.10

Photograph by David Bohl

A common question about Freemasonry and American history is "how many presidents were Freemasons?"  Fourteen United States presidents have been Freemasons, meaning that there is conclusive evidence that these men received the Master Mason degree.  The Masonic presidents are: George Washington; James Monroe; Andrew Jackson; James Polk; James Buchanan; Andrew Johnson; James Garfield; William McKinley; Theodore Roosevelt; William Taft; Warren Harding; Franklin Delano Roosevelt; Harry S. Truman; Gerald Ford.

In addition, the following presidential and vice presidential candidates who are featured in this exhibition were Freemasons:

Henry Clay

Winfield S. Hancock

William H. English

James A. Garfield

John A. Logan

Adlai Stevenson (1835-1914)

Garret A. Hobart

Alton B. Parker

Henry G. Davis

Charles W. Fairbanks

Joseph T. Robinson

Alfred M. Landon

Robert L. Bacon

Wendell L. Willkie

Which Presidents were Freemasons?